2014年7月8日火曜日

論文「Education in Nepal・ネパールの教育」 Kenpo Kai: Nabin Acharya

Date 2014/6/2

拳法会武道研修生 Nabin Acharya

Education in Nepal Modern education in Nepal began with the establishment of the first school in 1853 this school was only for the members of the ruling families and their courtiers(kings family &high class family ). Schooling for the general people began only after 1951.After the overthrow of the Rana Regime in 1951, great effort was taken to establish Nepal Education System. National Education Planning Commission was established in 1954,National Education Committee in 1964 and National Education Advisory Board in 1968. All these efforts were undertaken to upgrade Nepal Education System. Education of Nepal has only recently started to develop. Nepal education has suffered a lot during Rana Regime here when education was suppressed and after that Education was given to aristocratic people of the society. New Education System of Nepal was established in 1971. As a part of the five year plan, it was established to address individual needs, needs of society as a whole to mark national development. The main objective of Education system of Nepal was to develop midlevel managers and skilled man power. UniversalPrimary education with emphasis on Nepali medium was the main agenda. In 1980, there was increase in private schools. Free school education policy and education for all became the slogan in 90′s. Nepal’s education system is based on the pattern of United States. It has received much help while forming the curriculum. From Grade 1- 5 is considered primary education while, 6-8 secondary and 9-10 upper secondary. The classes 11 and 12 are together considered higher secondary. A school leaving Certificate is granted to students after passing class ten. Education, Science, Humanities are the streams offered after for Higher Secondary and a certificate is issued after exam. Technical schools are also there. In the past 50 years, there has been a dramatic expansion of education facilities in the country. As a result, adult literacy (age 15+) of the country was reported to be 48.2% (female: 34.6%, male: 62.2%) in the Population Census, 2001, up from about 5% in 1952–54. Beginning from about 300 schools and two colleges with about 10,000 students in 1951, there now are 49,000 schools (including higher secondary), 415 colleges, five universities, and two academies of higher studies. Altogether 7.2 million students are enrolled in those schools and colleges who are served by more than 222,000 teachers.Despite such examples of success, there are problems and challenges. Education management, quality, relevance, access are some of the critical issues of education in Nepal. Societal disparities based on gender, ethnicity, location, economic class, etc. are yet to be eliminated. Resource crunch has always been a problem in education. These problems have made the
goal of education for all a challenge for the country. The Ministry of Education is the apex body responsible for initiating and managing education activities in the country. The Minister of Education, assisted by the State/Assistant Minister, provides political leadership to the Ministry. The Ministry, as a part of the government bureaucracy, is headed by the Secretary of Education and consists of the central office, various functional offices, and offices located at the regional and district levels. The Central Office or the Ministry is mainly responsible for policy development, planning and monitoring, and evaluation regarding different aspects of education. With a purpose of bringing education administration nearer to the people, the Ministry has established five Regional Directorates and 75 District Education Offices in five development regions and 75 districts respectively. These decentralized offices are responsible for overseeing nonformal and school-level education activities in their respective areas. Regional Directorates are mainly responsible for coordinating and monitoring and evaluation of education activities and the District Education Offices are the main implementing agencies. STRUCTURE Education in Nepal is structured as school education and higher education. School education includes primary level of grades 1–5, lower secondary and secondary levels of grades 6–8 and 9–10 respectively. Pre-primary level of education is available in some areas. Six years old is the prescribed age for admission into grade one. A national level School Leaving Certificate (SLC) examination is conducted at the end of grade 10.Grades 11 and 12 are considered as higher secondary level. Higher Secondary Education Board (HSEB) supervises higher secondary schools which are mostly under private management. Previously these grades were under the university systemand were run as proficiency certificate level. Though some universities still offer these programs, the policy now is to integrate these grades into the school system.
Higher education consists of bachelor, masters, and PhD levels. Depending upon the stream and subject, bachelor’s level may be of three to five years’ duration. The duration of master’s level is generally two years. Some universities offer programs like M Phil and post-graduate diplomas.
Legally, there are two types of school in the country: community and institutional. Community schools receive regulargovernment grants whereas institutional schools are funded by school’s own or other non-governmental sources. Institutional schools are organized either as a non-profit trust or as a company. However, in practical terms, schools are mainly of two types: public (community) and private (institutional).
A third type of school is the kind run by the local people enthusiastic toward having a school in their locality. They do not receive regular government grants and most of them do not have any other sustainable financial source. Supported and managed by the local people, they can be thus identified as the real community schools.
Except one, all universities/academies are publicly managed and are supported by public source fund. However, public universities also provide affiliation to private colleges. Two academies of higher education are single college institutes whereas other universities have constituent and affiliated colleges across the country.
Years in schools, colleges and universities 1. Nursery 2. Lower Kindergarten (LKG) 3. Upper Kindergarten (UKG) 4. First Grade 5. Second Grade 6. Third Grade 7. Fourth Grade 8. Fifth Grade 9. Sixth Grade 10. Seventh Grade 11. Eighth Grade 12. Ninth Grade 13. Tenth Grade 14. SLC (School Leaving Certificate) (A test based on Tenth Grade study. To appear in SLC exam the student must complete pre-test exam of Tenth Grade based on SLC exam pattern.) 15. 10+2 (Intermediate Level) (two years) 16. Bachelors (three or four years) 17. Masters (two years) 18. Ph.D.
Al most all schools hours in Nepal 10am~4pm except nursery lower kindergarten upper kindergarten 10am~3pm collage and university has morning and day times almost job holders are study in morning.


ネパールの近代教育における特徴のひとつに学校へ行けるのは、与党の家族とその廷臣(キングス·ファミリー·ハイクラスのファミリー)のメンバーだけだった1853年に最初の学校の設立から始まった。一般の人々のために学校教育は、大変な努力によりネパール教育システムを確立し開始された。国家教育計画委員会は、1954年に設立され、1968年に1964年に国家教育委員会と国家教育諮問委員会は、ネパールの教育システムをアップグレードするために活動実施された。ネパールの教育は、ごく最近になって正常化に向かった。  <後略>

0 件のコメント:

コメントを投稿